Understanding Causes

Understanding the Contributing Factors of Myopia

Myopia is a result of many factors: genetic, lifestyle and environmental.¹

chart genetics family histroy of myopia
Adapted from Kate Gifford – Clinical Myopia Profile

Genetic:

Myopic Parents¹

Environment¹:

Sunlight, vitamin D, dopamine levels, time spent outdoors

Peripheral Hyperopia²:

Routine correction constantly moves images behind the retina which may continually signal the eye to grow

Near Work³:

Extended reading, use of electronic devices

  1. Gifford, P., & Gifford, K. L. (2016). The Future of Myopia Control Contact Lenses. Optometry and Vision Science. 93(4): 336-343.

  2. Peripheral Hyperopia explanation summarized from:
      • Gifford, P., & Gifford, K. L. (2016). The Future of Myopia Control Contact Lenses. Optometry and Vision Science, 93(4), 336-343.
      • Smith, E. L., Kee, C., Ramamirtham, R., Qiao-Grider, Y., & Hung, L. (2005). Peripheral Vision Can Influence Eye Growth and Refractive Development in Infant Monkeys. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. 46(11): 3965.
      • Cooper, J., Schulman, E., Jamal, N. (2012). Current Status on the Development and Treatment of Myopia. Optometry. 83(5):179-199.
  3. Flitcroft, D. (2012). The complex interactions of retinal, optical and environmental factors in myopia aetiology. Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. 31(6): 622-660.